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Anchor 1

God's Nature

Only one God: Deuteronomy 32:39; Isaiah 43:10; 44:6-8; 45:5; Hosea 13:4; Malachi 2:10; 1 Corinthians 8:6; Ephesians’ 4:6

God is Spirit: John 4:24; cf. also 1 John 4:8; for God is Love.

God is Creator: Genesis 1:1; Job 26:13; Psalms 33:6; 148:5; Proverbs 8:22-31; Sirach 24:8; 2 Maccabees 7:28; John 1:3; Colossians 1:16; Hebrews 11:3

God is unbounded: 1 Kings 8:27; Jeremiah 23:24; Acts 7:48-49

God is omnipresent: Psalms 139:7-12; Wisdom 1:7; Sirach 16:17-18; Jeremiah 23:24; Amos 9:2-3; Ephesians 1:23

God is omnipotent: Genesis 17:1; 28:3; 35:11; 43:14; Exodus 6:3; Revelation 1:8; 4:8; 11:17; 16:14; 21:22

God the Mighty: Genesis 49:24; Psalms 24:8; 50:1; Isaiah 10:21; Jeremiah 32:18; 2 Maccabees 11:13

God is Merciful: Exodus 34:6; 2 Chronicles 30:9; Psalms 25:6; 51:1; Isaiah 63:7; Luke 6:36; Romans 11:32; Ephesians 2:4; James 5:11

God is the source of life and holiness: Romans 6:23; Galatians 6:8; Ephesians 1:4-5; 1 Thessalonians 4:3; 2 Thessalonians 2:13-17

God is Judge of the world: 1 Samuel 2:10; 1 Chronicles 16:33; Ezekiel 18:30; Matthew 16:27; Acts 17:31; Romans 2:16; 2 Timothy 4:1; 1 Peter 4:5


Holy Trinity

Foreshadowing of plurality of Persons in Old Testament: Genesis 1:26; 3:22; 11:7; 18:1-5, 9-10, 16

Action of Triune Godhead in New Testament: Matthew 3:16-17; Luke 1:35; 3:21-22

Plurality of Persons as mentioned in New Testament: John 14:15; 26; 15:26; Acts 1:6-8; Romans 8:9; 1Corinthians 6:10-11; Ephesians 4:4-6; 1 Peter 1:2; 1 John 5:6-7; Jude 20:21

Baptism given in name of Trinity: Matthew 28:19

Blessing given in name of Trinity: 2 Corinthians 13:14


Divinity of Christ

Do you have trouble establishing the divinity of Christ? Jesus so perfectly fulfilled all of the prophecies foretold about him in the old covenant. Here are many significant Old Testament prophecies and their fulfillment by the Christ in the New Testament.

Jesus, Creator of the World - Genesis 1:1-3, John 1:1-4 & 14

Old Adam & Jesus the New Adam- Genesis 1:26-27, 1 Corinthians 15:45-49

Jesus, the Glory of God - Exodus 33:18-23, John 1:14, 18 2 Corinthians 4:6

Jesus, the Son of David - Psalm 132:10-11, 17-18 Mark 12:35-37

Jesus, the Root of Jesse - Isaiah 11:1-2,10, Luke 4:17-21

Jesus born of a Virgin that Shall Conceive - Isaiah 7:14, Matthew 1:20-23   (to be continued…)

Old Testament prophecies and their fulfillment by the Christ in the New Testament.

Jesus the Christ Is Born - Isaiah 9:6-7, Luke 1:31-35

Jesus and the Baptism in the Jordan River - Joshua 4:1-7, Psalm 114:3, Matthew 3:1-17

Jesus, Light in the Darkness - Isaiah 9:1-2, Matthew 4:13-16

Jesus and the Entry into Jerusalem - Zechariah 9:9, John 12:12-14

Jesus the Suffering Servant - Isaiah 53:5, 1 Peter 2:24-25

Jesus’ Victory over Death - Isaiah 25:8, 26:19, Hosea 13:14, 1 Corinthians 15:22,54-55, Revelation 21:3-4

Jesus the Messianic King - Daniel 7:13-14, Palm 93:1, Luke 1:30-33, John 18:36

Jesus the Ancient of Days - Daniel 7:9, Isaiah 6:1-3, Revelation 4:2-8

Jesus is God

Mt 28:9 … and they came up and took hold of his feet and worshiped him.

Jn the beginning was the Word and the Word was with God, and the Word was God.

Jn 8:58 Jesus replied: In all truth I tell you, before Abraham ever was, I am.

Acts 7:59 ...Lord Jesus, receive my spirit.

Rom 9:5 ... according to the flesh, is the Christ, who is God over all.

Col 2:6 ...As therefore you received Christ Jesus the Lord.

2 Pt 1:1 the righteousness of our God and Savior Jesus Christ.



Holy Spirit

Holy Spirit called Counselor: John 14:16; 26; 15:26; 16:7

Called the Spirit of Truth: John 15:26. 1 John 5:7

From Father: Luke 11:13. John 3:34; 15:26. 1 Thessalonians 4:8. 1 John 3:24

Proceeds from Father and the Son: John 15:26; 16:7; 16:13

Is given at baptism: Matthew 3:11-16. Luke 3:16. John 1:33. Acts 1:5; 2:38; 11:16

Is given at confirmation (separate from baptism): Acts 1:8; 8:15; 10:44; 19:6

Through the imposition of hands: Acts 8:17; 9:17; 13:2-4;19:6

Holy Spirit dwells in us: John 14:17. Acts 2:33. Romans 5:5. 1 Corinthians 3:16; 6:19 Galatians 3:14.

Ephesians 1:13. 2 Timothy 1:14

Gifts of Holy Spirit: Isaiah 11:1-3; 61:1-2; Luke 4:18-19

Teacher and revealer of Truth: John 14:26; 16:13; Acts 5:32; 9:31; 1 Corinthians 2:10; Ephesians 3:5

Inspires men: Acts 4:8; 6:10; 7:55

Inspired writing of Scriptures: Acts 3:21; 2 Timothy 3:16; Peter 1:21


The Holy Catholic Church 

Church is Body of Christ

Colossians 1:18 Christ is the head of the body of Christ

1 Corinthians 12:20-27 We are all parts of the body of Christ

Ephesians 5:30 We are all members of the body of Christ

Romans 12:4-5 More proof of the body of Christ

1 Corinthians 6:15 More proof of the body of Christ


Church is Catholic (One and Universal)

John 10:16 There shall be one flock

Ephesians 4:3-6 One Lord, One Faith, One baptism

Romans 16:17 Avoid creating dissension in the Church

Phillipians 2:2 Be of one mind

John 17:17-23 Jesus prays that his Church is undivided   (to be continued…)


Church is Holy

John 16:13 Church is guided by the Spirit into all truth

John 14:26 Holy Spirit is the teacher of the church

Luke 10:16 Church speaks with Christ’s voice


Church is Infallible

John 16:13 Lead by the Holy Spirit into all truth.

Luke 10:16 The leaders of the Church speak with Christ's own voice.

1 Tim 3:15 The Church, not the Bible, is the pillar and bulwark of truth.

Acts 15:28 Apostles and their successors speak with the voice of the Holy Spirit

Matt 28:20 Christ is with His Church always.    (to be continued…)


Church is Apostolic

John 15:16 Jesus chose only men to be his Apostles

John 20:21 Jesus made these men sharers in His own mission.

Luke 22:29-30 These men are part of the kingdom.

Matthew 16:18 Jesus built His Church upon Peter, who holds the keys of the kingdom.

John 10:16 One shepherd to lead Christ's flock.

John 21:17 Christ choose Peter

Ephesians 4:11 Proof of the hierarchical

1 Tim 3:1, 3:8, 5:17 Various offices in the hierarchy

Titus 1:5 Bishops ordain deacons.    


Seven Sacraments 


Anointing of the Sick

Mark 6:13 the apostles anointed the sick with oil and cured them. This sacrament heals us physically and spiritually.

James 5:14 the presbyters (priests) are called to anoint the sick with oil and pray over them. Their sins are forgiven.

James 5:15 the priest's prayer of faith will "save" the sick man / the Lord will raise him up. "Save" (sozein) = eschatological.

James 5:14 -15 shows another example of how priests effect the forgiveness of sins (here, even without confession). Non Catholics have no plausible exegesis of this passage other than to acknowledge the sacrament of the sick.

Gal. 4:13-14; 2 Tim. 4:20 Paul was afflicted with sickness - shows not all illnesses were cured in the apostolic age.



John 3:5, 22 Born of the water and the Spirit

Titus 3:5 Saved through the bath of rebirth and renewal by Holy Spirit

Acts 2:37-38 repent and be baptized to receive the gift of the Holy Spirit

Acts 22:16 Baptism washes ones sins away

Romans 6:4 Baptized into the death and resurrection of Christ

1 Peter 3:21 Baptism now saved you.

Hebrews 10:22 Washed through water.

2 Kings 5:14 Foreshadows baptism

Isaiah 44:3 Water and Spirit are connected to baptism

Ezek. 36:25-27 Lord promises us that he will sprinkle our sins clean with water. (to be continued…)

Acts 8:12-13; 36; 10:47 If baptism is only symbolic why is everyone immediately baptized?

Gal. 3:27 In baptism we literally become new creatures.

Mark 16:16 Baptism is normative, even if not absolutely necessary. Those who die before baptism that are saved, are saved by 'baptism by desire'.

Infant Baptism

Acts 2:38; Acts 16:15, 16:33, 18:8; 1 Cor 1:16,... suggests baptism of all, incl. children.

Jn 3:5; ... necessity of baptism.

Mk 16:16 ...He who believes and is baptized will be saved; but he who does not believe will be condemned.

Col 2:11-12 ... circumcision (normally performed on infants c.f. Gen 17:12) replaced by baptism.



Matthew 9:2-8 Son of Man has authority to forgive sin

Mt 18:18 ... whatever you bind on earth is bound in heaven.

John 20:23 This authority is given to the Apostles

2 Corinthians 5:17-20 Ministry of Reconciliation given to priests

James 5:13-15 Prayer of priests forgives sins

James 5:16 Command to confess sins to each other

Matthew 18:18 Power to bind and loose

1 John 5:16 Mortal and venial sin

Priests do not forgive our sins, they convey God’s forgiveness to us.


Acts 19:5-6 Paul imposes hands for Confirmation

Acts 8:14-17 Confirmation in action

2 Corinthians 1:21-22 Confirmation

Ephesians 1:13 Confirmation preached

Hebrews 6:2 Confirmation instructed


John 6:23-53 Throughout these verses, the Greek text uses the word "phago" nine times. "Phago" literally means "to eat" or "physically consume." The disciples take issue with Jesus' literal usage

of "eat." So what does Jesus do?

John 6:54-58 He uses an even more literal verb, translated as "trogo," which means to gnaw or chew or crunch. He increases the literalness and drives his message home. Jesus will literally give us His flesh and blood to eat.

Matt. 24:38; John 13:18The word "phago" is used here too, and it means to literally gnaw or chew meat. "Phago" is never used metaphorically in Greek. There is not one verse in Scripture where "phago" is used symbolically, and yet this must be your argument if you are going to deny the Catholic understanding of Jesus' words.

John 6:55 Jesus says "For My Flesh is food indeed, and My Blood is drink indeed." This phrase can only be understood as being responsive to those who do not believe that Jesus' flesh is food indeed, and His blood is drink indeed. Further, Jesus uses the word which is translated as "sarx." "Sarx" means flesh (not "soma" which means body).    (to be continued…)


John 6:55 further, the phrases "real" food and "real" drink use the word "alethes." "Alethes" means "really" or "truly," and would only be used if there were doubts concerning the reality of

Jesus' flesh and blood as being food and drink. Thus, Jesus is emphasizing the miracle of His body and blood being actual food and drink

John 1:13,14; 3:6; 8:15; 17:2; Matt. 16:17; 19:5; 24:22; 26:41; Mark 10:8; 13:20; 14:38; Luke 3:6; 24:39 These are other examples in Scripture where "sarx" means flesh. It is always literal.

John 1:29 Jesus is the "lamb of God"

Ex 12: 8,46 The Paschal Lamb must be eaten.

1 Cor 5:7 Jesus is the Paschal Lamb who has been sacrificed.

1 Cor 10:16 11:23-29 Eating the Eucharist unworthily is to be guilty of his body and blood.

Catholics do not believe that Jesus is sacrificed repeatedly at every Mass. Since Jesus is God and outside time so is His sacrifice. At every Mass He actually makes us spiritually present 2,000 years ago when He died. Think of it as if you taped a show and watched it later, but in a supernatural way. Jesus’ dying for our sins is applied to us personally 2,000 years later, even though we weren’t there, it is the same with the Mass. (See Catechism of the  Catholic Church Para.1545, 1367)


Real Presence

The doctrine of the Real Presence asserts that in the Holy Eucharist, Jesus is literally and wholly present—body and blood, soul and divinity—under the appearances of bread and wine. Evangelicals and Fundamentalists frequently attack this doctrine as "unbiblical," but the Bible is forthright in declaring it (cf. 1 Cor. 10:16–17, 11:23–29; and, most forcefully, John 6:32–71). 

Jn 6:53-56...truly, truly I say to you, unless you eat the flesh of the Son of man and drink his blood, you have no life in you.

Mt 26:26-28...take, eat; this is my body.

Mk 14:22-24...Take, this is my body. And he took the cup, and when he had given thanks, he gave it to them and they all drank of it. This is my blood of the covenant...

Holy Orders

Acts 20:28 Holy Spirit appoints leaders

John 20:22 Some are separated for the priesthood

Acts 6:6 Holy orders conferred

Acts 14:22 Bishops choose leaders

1 Timothy 4:14 Holy orders received by laying on of hands

2 Timothy 1:6 Holy orders received by laying on of hands

Titus 1:5 Priests appointed everywhere



Matthew 18:5-6 Leave father & mother

Mark 10:7-12 No man may divorce

Hebrews 13:4 Let marriage be honored among all

Malichi 2:14-16 God hates divorce

Matthew 5:32-33 Divorce and remarriage is adultery

1 Corinthians 7:10-11 Those who are separated must stay single or reconcile


Bible and Tradition

Tradition is the living transmission of the message of the Gospel in the Church. The oral preaching of the Apostles, and the written message of salvation under the inspiration of the Holy Spirit (Bible), are conserved and handed on as the deposit of faith through the apostolic succession in the Church. Both the living Tradition and the written Scriptures have their common source in the revelation of God in Jesus Christ…( Catechism of the  Catholic Glossary).


"Sacred Tradition and Sacred Scripture make up a single sacred deposit of the Word of God" (Catechism of the  Catholic Para. 97). ‘To this he called you through our gospel, so that you may obtain the glory of our Lord Jesus Christ. So then, brethren, stand firm and hold to the traditions which you were taught by us, either by word of mouth or by letter.’ 2 Thess. 2:14


Mt 23:2-3 From the chair of Moses

John 20:21-25 Apostolic Authority

Jn 21:25 ... not everything is in the Bible.

2 Tim 2:2; 1 Cor 11:2 ... St. Paul speaks of oral tradition.

Acts 20:35 A saying of Christ not found in Scripture.

Acts 2:42 ...early Christians followed apostolic tradition.

1 Corinthians 11:2 Apostolic Tradition

2 Thess 2:15, 3:6 commands disciples to keep traditions.

2 Thess 3:6 Those who act against tradition should be shunned

1 Timothy 3:15 Church is the pillar of Truth

2 Timothy 1:13 Command to follow oral tradition

2 Peter 1:20 No private interpretation

2 Peter 3:15-16 Admission that the Scriptures can be hard to interpret and grasp.

2 Jn 1:12 ...more oral tradition.

Heb 5:12 ... guidance needed to interpret scriptures.



Second Coming

"The Sacred Scriptures inform us that there are two comings of the Son of God: the one when He assumed human flesh for our salvation in the womb of a virgin; the other when He shall come at the end of the world to judge all mankind. This latter coming is called in Scripture the day of the Lord. The day of the Lord, says the Apostle, shall come, as a thief in the night; and our Lord Himself says: Of that day and hour no one knoweth." Catechism of Council of Trent, The Creed, Article VII


Matthew 24:44 The time of the second coming is unknown

1 Thess 5:2-3 The Lord will come like a thief in the night

Matthew 24:36 No one knows the hour or the day of Christ's second coming but the Father


Salvation of Man

Faith and Good Works

Matthew 7:21 Not all who profess Christ will be saved.

Matthew 19:6-7 Jn 14:21... If you want to enter eternal life, keep the commandments.

Matthew 24:13 Those who persevere to the end will be saved.

James 2:24-26 Faith Alone is not biblical

Romans 2:5-8 We are judged by our works

1 Cor 9:24-27… Must continue in faith and works until the end.

1 Cor 13:2 ... Faith without love is nothing

2 Cor 5:10 ... works have merit.

2 Corinthians 11:15 Deeds are important

Eph 2:8-10… Grace is required


Faith and Good Works

Galatians 5:4 Separation of Christ of believers.

Galatians 5:6 ... Faith requires work.

Phil 2:12 Work out our salvation in fear and trembling.

Rev 20:12-13 The dead are judged by their deeds

Phil 2:12-13 Salvation must be worked out

Hebrews 6:4-6 Those with the Holy Spirit who fall away.

Hebrews 10:26 ... must avoid sin.

1 Peter 1:17 God judges by works

James 2:14-17, 24 ... what good is faith without works?

James 5:20 ... "earning" forgiveness.

1 Cor 9:27 ... after preaching ... I myself disqualified.

1 Cor 10:12 ... thinks that he stands ... lest he fall.

Phil 2:12 ... work out salvation with fear and trembling.

Heb 4:1 ... fear of failing to reach salvation.

1 Jn 5:16,17 ... some sins are mortal, some are not.

Romans 11:22 It is possible to be cut off as a Christian.

1 Cor 9:27 Possibility of not being saved if he falls into sin.


Salvation as a past event

Romans 8:24; Ephesians 2:8-9; 1 Timothy 2:9; Titus 3:5

Salvation as a current process

Philippians 2:12; 1 Peter 1:9

Salvation as a future event

Matthew 10:22; Mark 8:35; 1 Corinthians 3:15; Hebrews 9:28



Purgatory is a state of final purification after death and before entrance into heaven for those who died in Gods friendship, but were only imperfectly purified; a final cleansing of human imperfection before one is able to enter the joy of heaven. (CCC glossary). Purgatory comes from Latin and means ‘cleansing or purifying.’ It helps us to get rid of any imperfections or attachment to sin we might still have after we die. It is also part of Jesus’ sanctification of us. It is a place of healing so we can live in eternal happiness in Heaven. Scripture tells us that nothing unclean shall enter Heaven (Revelation 21:27). Also, if we die without repenting of minor (venial) sins we must also be cleansed of them before entering Heaven. Some sins (venial) don’t send us to Hell (1 John 5:17) and can be forgiven in the next life (Matthew 12:32). However, major (mortal) sins do separate us from God by our own choice, so if we die without repenting of them we go to Hell forever, not Purgatory (CCC Para. 1854-1864).

Catholics do not believe that Purgatory is a ‘Second Chance’ at Heaven, but it is where those who are already going to Heaven, but need to have the last vestiges of sin or temptation to sin removed, must go first. (See 1 Cor. 3:11, CCC Para. 1030-1032).


Purgatory and praying for Dead 

Matt. 5:25, 18:34; Luke 12:58-59 Indication of a temporary state in which there is a purification from sin. Purgatory leaves us perfect and ready for a relationship with God for eternity.

Matt. 5:48 We cannot be perfect on our own. Only God's everlasting burning love can bring us to perfection.

Matt. 12:32 Forgiveness before heaven, but after death.

2 Tim. 1:16-18 Onesiphorus is dead already, but Paul seeks mercy for him. There is no need for mercy in heaven, and none given in hell.

Heb. 12:14 We still sin as believers, but we must be perfectly holy to be before God.

1 Peter 3:19; 4:6 Righteous souls being purified for the beatific vision.

Rev. 21:27 Nothing unclean enters heaven. Inclination to sin is uncleanliness.

Gen. 50:10 Prayer for the dead.

2 Macc. 12:43-45 Prayer for the dead.

1 Peter 1:6-7 fire to test the fruits of our faith.

1 Pt 3:19 which he went and preached to the spirits in prison...

Mal. 3:2-3 Purification of the righteous dead.


The Primacy of Peter

Matthew 10:1-4; Mark 3:16-19; Luke 6:14-16; Acts 1:13 ... Peter always mentioned first, as foremost apostle.

Matthew 16:18 Upon this rock (Peter) I will build my Church

Matthew 16:19 Peter is given the keys to the kingdom. (Is 22:22; Rev 1:18 ... keys as symbol of authority).

Matthew 18:21; Mk 8:29 ... Peter speaks for the apostles.

Matthew 10:1-4 Peter's name heads all of the apostles

Luke 22:31-32 ... Peter to strengthen his brethren.

John 1:42 ... Simon is Cephas (Aramaic: Kepha for rock).

John 21:17 The Successor of Peter leads Christ's flock

Acts 3:6-7 ... Peter worked first healing.

Acts 10:46-48 ... God revealed to Peter that Gentiles is be baptized.



Apostolic Succession

John 15:16 Jesus chose only men to be his Apostles

John 20:21 Jesus made these men sharers in his mission

Luke 22:29-30 These men are part of the kingdom.

Matthew 16:18 Jesus built His Church upon Peter

John 10:16 One shepherd to lead Christ's flock.

1 Tim 3:1, 8, 5:17 Various offices in the hierarchy

Titus 1:5 Bishops ordain deacons.

Malachi 2:7 Seek instructions from the priesthood

Acts 1:20 Another person fulfills the Apostles office Acts

1:25-26 Matthias is chosen to replace Peter

1 Tim 4:14 The gift of the priesthood is given

1 Tim 5:22 Laying on of hands is not given to everyone.

Acts 14:23 The Apostles appointed priests for each Church.



Pope is the successor of St. Peter as Bishop of Rome and Supreme Pontiff of the universal Catholic Church. The

Pope exercises a primacy of authority as Vicar of Christ and shepherd of the whole Church; he receives the divine assistance promised by Christ to the Church when he defines infallibly a doctrine of faith or morals (CCC Glossary).

Infallibility: The gift of the Holy Spirit to the Church whereby the pastors of the Church, the pope and bishops in union with him, can definitively proclaim a doctrine of faith or morals for the belief of the faithful. This gift is related to the inability of the whole body of the faithful to err in matters of faith and morals. (CCC Glossary)

We do not believe that the Pope is perfect or sinless in his personal life. Our Faith believes that when the Pope teaches on matters of faith and morals that the Holy Spirit will keep him from teaching error. Just as the same Holy Spirit made sinful, imperfect men write perfect, inspired Scripture. (See Matthew 16:16, John 21:15-17, CCC Para. 891, 2035, 2051)



The Catholic Church sees Mary as Jesus sees her. We are the adopted brethren of Jesus, so Mary is our adopted mother. Since Scripture commands us to honor our parents we do that. We do not believe Mary is a God or in any way equal to God, but a fantastic human being that did God’s will perfectly during her life. Where as Adam and Eve fell into sin, she did not. We do hold her in high esteem and call her blessed, just as she said we would do in Luke 1:48. (See also Rev. 12:1, CCC Para. 970)

Catholics do not ignore Jesus by paying attention to Mary. We ask Mary to pray to Jesus for us, just as we ask one another. The Catholic Mass is a service that is 80% Scripture (including 3 readings from the Old and New Testaments) and is totally geared to worshipping Jesus who is Our Lord and God. (CCC Para. 308)


Mary Ever Virgin 

Luke 1:27 a virgin betrothed to a man…”

Matthew 1:23 ...Behold, a virgin shall conceive and bear a son…

Matthew 1:25 ...but knew her not until she had borne a son…

Luke 1:34 can this be since I do not know man…

John 19:26-27 ... Jesus gives care of Mary to John, not one of his "brothers." If she had other kids, why did Jesus entrust her to John? Mary’s perpetual virginity is proved from the fact that she had no other kids beside Jesus.

“Brothers” of Jesus

The Jewish people made reference to each other as “brothers” and “sisters.” Besides, the Hebrew language did not contain a word that meant “cousin.” Instead, the word “brother” was used for both, the words “brother” and “cousin.”

Mark 15:40, , “There were also women looking on from a distance; among them were Mary Magdalene, and Mary the mother of James the younger and of Joses, and Salome.” It is clear from this verse that Mary, the mother of James and Joses was not Mary, the mother of Jesus. The Bible makes reference to more than one Mary.

Mark 6:3, we read, "'Is not this the carpenter, the son of Mary, and brother of James and Joses and Judas and Simon, and are not his sisters here with us?' And they were offense at him." Notice here that there is only one reference to "the son of Mary," that being Jesus. The others are not called the sons of Mary but rather the brothers of Jesus. If they would have been the brothers of Jesus, logically, they too would have been referred to as the sons of Mary.

Acts 1:12-15 ... apostles, Mary, "some women", and Jesus' "brothers" number about 120. That is a lot of brothers.

John 19:26-27 ... Jesus gives care of Mary to John, not one of his "brothers."


Mother of God 

We refer to Mary as the ‘Mother of God’ because that’s what she is. This doesn’t mean she ‘created’ God, but that she gave birth to Jesus (Who is fully God and fully man). (See Luke 1:42 and CCC Para. 495). This title of Mary is stressing the fact Jesus is fully DIVINE.

Matthew 1:23 ...a virgin will bear a son and his name shall be called Emmanuel (which means, God with us).

Luke 1:43 ...and why is this granted to me, that the mother of my Lord should come to me?

Galatians 4:4 ...God sent forth his Son, born of woman.

John 1:1 "In the beginning was the Word, and the Word was with God, and the Word was God."

John 8:58"Jesus said unto them, Verily, verily, I say unto you, Before Abraham was born, I am."

John 20:28"Thomas answered and said unto him, My Lord and my God."


Immaculate Conception 

The Immaculate Conception is "the doctrine that our Lady, in the first instant of her conception was, by a unique singular grace and privilege of Almighty God in view of the merits of Jesus Christ the Saviour of the human race, preserved exempt from all stain of original sin." (Definition from A Catholic Dictionary, 1951). We believe that Mary was conceived without original sin, just as Adam and Eve were. This was a special gift from God to Mary so that sin would never touch Our Lord, even in the womb: CCC Para. 722. The Holy Spirit prepared Mary by his grace. It was fitting that the mother of Jesus, in whom "the whole fullness of deity dwells bodily," should herself be "full of grace." She was, by sheer grace, conceived without sin as the most humble of creatures, the most capable of welcoming the inexpressible gift of the Almighty.


We believe Mary is ‘Full of Grace’(Luke 1:28... Hail full of Grace, the Lord is with you) and as Mary herself said, ‘All generations shall call me blessed.’ (Luke 1:48). (See also CCC Para. 501).  She got this blessing from the merit of Jesus shedding his blood on the Cross. She also needed the salvation brought by Jesus. She received the salvation brought by Jesus the very moment she was formed in the womb of her mother.

Luke 1:30 ... You have found favor with God.

Luke 1:47 spirit rejoices in God my Savior.



"The taking into Heaven of the soul and body of the Blessed Virgin on the completion of her earthly life, by an anticipation of the general judgment. (Definition from A Catholic Dictionary, 1951).

Our Lady Mary's Assumption follows from her sinlessness. This is because bodily decay results from sin. Sacred Scripture demonstrates this:

• "in the sweat of your face shall you eat bread, till you return unto the ground; for out of it was you taken: for dust you are, and unto dust shall you return" (Genesis 3:19)

• "For thou wilt not leave my soul to Sheol; Neither wilt thou suffer thy holy one to see corruption." (Psalm 16:10)

Scripture shows how Enoch and Elijah assumed into heaven:  "By faith Enoch was taken up so that he should not see death; and he was not found, because God had taken him. Now before he was taken he was attested as having pleased God." (Hebrews 11:5, see Genesis 5:24). "And as they still went on and talked, behold, a chariot of fire and horses of fire separated the two of them. And Elijah went up by a whirlwind into heaven." (2 Kings 2:11).

The strongest evidence for Mary's Assumption is a complete lack of evidence. It means that, there is no early Christian who ever claimed to have a bodily relic of our Lady Mary, and no city ever claimed to have her remains.


The Queenship of Mary 

In the Old Testament, the title Queen is properly applied to the queen-mother, since in an Oriental household; it is not the wife, but the mother of the master, who exercises the highest authority.

"Bath-sheba therefore went unto king Solomon, to speak unto him for Adonijah. And the king rose up to meet her, and bowed himself unto her, and sat down on his throne, and caused a throne to be set for the king's mother; and she sat on his right hand." (1 Kings 2:19)

"And also Maacah his mother he removed from being queen, because she had made an abominable image for an Asherah; and Asa cut down her image, and burnt it at the brook Kidron." (1 Kings 15:13)

Question: If Jesus Christ is the legitimate Messianic King of the true Israel (the Church /Heaven), then what stops Mary from being the Queen Mother?


Mary - The Ark of the Covenant

Inside the Ark of the Old Covenant - stone tablets with 10 commandments- the word of God, Manna, The rod of Aaron (Priest) … Inside the Ark of the New Covenant, Mary – Jesus the word of God, Living Bread and the High Priest.

Old Ark is made of Pure Gold and Acacia (pure) wood (Exodus 25:10) … Mary is virgin and immaculate. (Mat 1: 23)

Old Covenant travelled to Judea for three months (2 Sam. 6:1-11) … Mary travelled to Judea and stayed for three months (Luke 1:39, 56).

David danced and leapt in front of the ark (2 Sam. 6:14) … John the Baptist - of priestly lineage - leapt in his mother's womb at the approach of Mary (Luke 1:41).

David asks, "How can the ark of the Lord come to me?" (2 Sam. 6:9) … Elizabeth asks, "Why is this granted me, that the mother of my Lord should come to me?" (Luke 1:43).

The ark returns to its home and ends up in Jerusalem, where God's presence and glory is revealed in the temple (2 Sam. 6:12; 1 Kgs. 8:9-11) … Mary returns home and eventually ends up in Jerusalem, where she presents God incarnate in the temple (Luke 1:56; 2:21-22).



Mk 12:27 In Christ we are alive, not dead even after our natural death. Spiritually we live.

Mk 12:26-27... "not God of the dead, but of the living...”

1 Cor 12:25-27; Rom 12:4-5 ... we are the body of Christ.

Eph 6:18; Rom 15:30; Col 4:3; 2 Thess 1:11 ... intercessory prayer.

Jos 5:14; Dan 8:17; Tob 12:16 ... veneration of angels united with God (Mt 18:10).

1 Cor 13:12; 1 John 3:2 ... saints also united with God.

Lk 20:34-38 ... those who died are like angels.

2 Mac 15:11-16 ... deceased Onias and Jeremiah interceded for Jews.

Rev 8:3-4; Jer 15:1 ... saints' intercession.


Communion of Saints and intercessory prayers

John 15:5 ...Unity of all Christians.

John 2:3-5 Jesus answers Mary's intercession. We too should go to Mary to ask her for her prayers.

1 Corinthians 11:1-3 We should imitate Paul as he imitates Christ.

Eph 2:19 ...but you are fellow citizens with the saints and members of the household of God.

Romans 8:35-39 Death does not separate the communion of the body of Christ because we are united in Christ.

Rom 15:30 ...strive together with me in prayer…

Ephesians 3:14,15 We are all one family united together, whether we are on heaven or on earth

1 Timothy 2:1-3 Paul urges intercessions and prayer be made for all people. It is okay to pray for each other and offer mediation in and to Jesus.

1 Timothy 2:5 While there is one mediator of the new covenant there are many intercessors in that covenant.

1 John 3:2 The saints in heaven are more aware of God and more alive than we are now.

Hebrews 12:1 We are surrounded by a cloud of witnesses.

Revelation 5:8, 6:9-11 The prayers of the saints are offered and answered at the throne of God.

Mother Mary neither takes the place of our Lord Jesus Christ, nor any of the Saints. Their mediatorship is secondary to Jesus Christ; and is only possible because of Jesus Christ, and their relationship to us through His Mystical Body, the Church.



Prayers for the Dead: Tobit 12:12 2 Maccabees 12:39-45, 1 Corinthians 15:29, 2 Timothy 1:16-18 (Assumption is that Onesiphorus is dead.)

Dead Saints Are Aware of Earthly Affairs: Matthew 22:30, Luke 15:10, 1 Corinthians 4:9, Hebrews 12:1

Dead Saints Intercede For Those On Earth: Jeremiah 15:1, 2 Maccabees 15:14, Revelation 6:9-10

Saints Are Intermediaries and Present Our Prayers to God: Revelation 5:8

Dead Saints Appear On Earth to Interact With Men: 1 Samuel 28:12-15 with Ecclesiastics 46:20, 2 Maccabees 15:13-16, Matthew 17:1-3, 27:50-53, Revelation 11:3

Guardian Angels: Psalm 34:7 and 91:11, Matthew 18:10, Acts 12:15, Hebrews 1:14

Angels Are Aware of Our Thoughts: Luke 15:10, 1 Corinthians 4:9

Angels Participate in the Giving of God's Grace: Revelation 1:4

Angels Are Intermediaries and Present Our Prayers to God: Tobit 12:12,15 Revelation 5:8, 8:3-4


Veneration of Saints

Veneration (of Saints): Showing devotion and respect to Mary, the Apostles, and the martyrs, who were viewed as faithful witnesses to faith in Jesus Christ. Later, veneration was given to those who led a life of prayer and self-denial in giving witness to Christ, whose virtues were recognized and publicly proclaimed in their canonization as saints. Such veneration is often extended to the relics or remains of those recognized as saints; indeed, to many sacred objects and images. Veneration must be clearly distinguished from adoration and worship, which are due to God alone. (CCC Glossary).

The definition of ‘pray’ shows the different meanings it has in English. In Greek the two are more clearly separated and there is not a chance of misunderstanding: Latria (worship) and dulia (respect). We give Latria only to God. Catholics do not put Saints above God.



Ex 25:18-22, 26:1,31; Num 21:8-9... God commands images made.

Jn 3:14-15; …God does not prohibit image making.

Numbers 21:8-9 God commands Moses to make an image and it saves the people through their faith

1 Kg 6:23-29, 35,... Solomon's temple: statues and images.

1 Kings 7:25-45 God’s temple has many images

Acts 19:11,12 ... Paul's handkerchiefs and aprons.

2 Kg 13:20-21 ... Elisha's bones.

Acts 5:15-16 ... Peter's shadow.

Mt 9:20-22 ... Jesus' garment cures woman.


But Never worship Statues as it is against the commandment of God

Ex 20:4-5...God prohibits worshipping statues.


Call no Man “Father”

"And do not call anyone on earth 'father,' for you have one Father, and he is in heaven." Matthew 23:9. So can we call a Priest "Father?"

Matt 19:19 Jesus tells us to honor our father and mother.

Matt 3:9 Jesus calls Abraham father.

Acts 7:2 Stephen refers to Jewish leaders as fathers.

Rom 4:16 … to those who share the faith of Abraham, for he is the father of us all.

1 Cor. 4:15 … for I became your father in Christ Jesus through the Gospel.

Heb 12:9 ...besides this, we have had earthly fathers...



Matt. 19:11-12 Jesus says celibacy is preferred, it is a gift and whoever can take it on should. Jesus himself is celibate.

Matt. 19:29 Jesus says that whoever gives up children for the sake of His name will receive a hundred times more.

Matt. 22:30 Priests live the heavenly consecration to God on earth as a reflection of what will be in heaven.

1 Cor 7:7 Paul wishes that all were celibate like he is.

1 Cor. 7:32-38 Paul recommends celibacy for full-time ministers in the Church.

1 Tim. 3:2 bishops may be married only once and so they could not remarry.

1 Tim. 4:3 The Church recognizes marriage as a sacrament. Celibacy is a discipline priests voluntarily receive when they decide to become priests.

Rev. 14:4 Those consecrated to virginity are honored in heaven.

Isaiah 56:3-7 the eunuchs who keep God's covenant will have a special place in the kingdom of heaven.

Jer. 16:1-4 Jeremiah is told by God not to take a wife or have children as a sign of the last days.



Covenants of Salvation

Covenant Name Adamic

Covenant Mediator Adam

Covenant Mountain Eden (Ez 28)

Covenant Establishment Between God and Man

Covenant Scripture Genesis 1-2

Covenant with Family (Marriage)


Covenant Name Noahic

Covenant Mediator Noah

Covenant Mountain Ararat

Covenant Establishment Between God and Man

Covenant Scripture Genesis 9

Covenant with More than one family


Covenant Name Abrahamic

Covenant Mediator Abraham

Covenant Mountain Moriah

Covenant Establishment Between God and Man

Covenant Scripture Genesis 12-22:18

Covenant with Tribes


Covenant Name Mosaic

Covenant Mediator Moses

Covenant Mountain Sinai

Covenant Establishment Between God and Man

Covenant Scripture Exodus 19-24

Covenant with Nation


Covenant Name Davidic

Covenant Mediator David

Covenant Mountain Zion

Covenant Establishment Between God and Man

Covenant Scripture 2 Samuel 7

Covenant with Kingdom

Covenant Name: "new" covenant

Covenant Mediator: The Prophets

Covenant Scripture: Jer 31, Ezek 34-37, Isa 55:3

Covenant Name: Eucharistic (New Covenant)

Covenant Mediator: Jesus Christ

Covenant Mountain: Calvary

Covenant Establishment: Between the Father and the Son.

Covenant Scripture: Matthew 26

Covenant with Jews and Gentiles/International Covenant




Upon this ROCK I shall build my Church and the GATES of hell shall not prevail against it. (Matthew 16:18)

St. Peter (32-67) St. Linus (67-76)

St. Anacletus (76-88) St. Clement I (88-97)

St. Evaristus (97-105) St. Alexander I (105-115)

St. Sixtus I (115-125) St. Telesphorus (125-136)

St. Hyginus (136-140) St. Pius I (140-155)

St. Anicetus (155-166) St. Soter (166-175)

St. Eleutherius (175-189) St. Victor I (189-199)

St. Zephyrinus (199-217) St. Callistus I (217-22)

St. Urban I (222-30) St. Pontain (230-35)

St. Anterus (235-36) St. Fabian (236-50)

St. Cornelius (251-53) St. Lucius I (253-54)

St. Stephen I (254-257) St. Sixtus II (257-258)

St. Dionysius (260-268) St. Felix I (269-274)

St. Eutychian (275-283) St. Caius (283-296)

St. Marcellinus (296-304) St. Marcellus I (308-309)

St. Eusebius (309 or 310) St. Miltiades (311-14)

St. Sylvester I (314-35) St. Marcus (336)

St. Julius I (337-52) Liberius (352-66)

St. Damasus I (366-83) St. Siricius (384-99)

St. Anastasius I (399-401) St. Innocent I (401-17)

St. Zosimus (417-18) St. Boniface I (418-22)

St. Celestine I (422-32) St. Sixtus III (432-40)

St. Leo I (the Great) (440-61) St. Hilarius (461-68)

St. Simplicius (468-83) St. Felix III (II) (483-92)

St. Gelasius I (492-96) Anastasius II (496-98)

St. Symmachus (498-514) St. Hormisdas (514-23)

St. John I (523-26) St. Felix IV (III) (526-30)

Boniface II (530-32) John II (533-35)

St. Agapetus I (535-36) St. Silverius (536-37)

Vigilius (537-55) Pelagius I (556-61)

John III (561-74) Benedict I (575-79)

Pelagius II (579-90) St. Gregory I (590-604)

Sabinian (604-606) Boniface III (607)

St. Boniface IV (608-15) St. Deusdedit (615-18)

Boniface V (619-25) Honorius I (625-38)

Severinus (640) John IV (640-42)

Theodore I (642-49) St. Martin I (649-55)

St. Eugene I (655-57) St. Vitalian (657-72)

Adeodatus (II) (672-76) Donus (676-78)

St. Agatho (678-81) St. Leo II (682-83)

St. Benedict II (684-85) John V (685-86)

Conon (686-87) St. Sergius I (687-701)

John VI (701-05) John VII (705-07)

Sisinnius (708) Constantine (708-15)

St. Gregory II (715-31) St. Gregory III (731-41)

St. Zachary (741-52) Stephen II (752)

Stephen III (752-57) St. Paul I (757-67)

Stephen IV (767-72) Adrian I (772-95)

St. Leo III (795-816) Stephen V (816-17)

St. Paschal I (817-24) Eugene II (824-27)

Valentine (827) Gregory IV (827-44)

Sergius II (844-47) St. Leo IV (847-55)

Benedict III (855-58) St. Nicholas I (858-67)

Adrian II (867-72) John VIII (872-82)

Marinus I (882-84) St. Adrian III (884-85)

Stephen VI (885-91) Formosus (891-96)

Boniface VI (896) Stephen VII (896-97)

Romanus (897) Theodore II (897)

John IX (898-900) Benedict IV (900-03)

Leo V (903) Sergius III (904-11)

Anastasius III (911-13) Lando (913-14)

John X (914-28) Leo VI (928)

Stephen VIII (929-31) John XI (931-35)

Leo VII (936-39) Stephen IX (939-42)

Marinus II (942-46) Agapetus II (946-55)

John XII (955-63) Leo VIII (963-64)

Benedict V (964) John XIII (965-72)

Benedict VI (973-74) Benedict VII (974-83)

John XIV (983-84) John XV (985-96)

Gregory V (996-99) Sylvester II (999-1003)

John XVII (1003) John XVIII (1003-09)

Sergius IV (1009-12) Benedict VIII (1012-24)

John XIX (1024-32) Benedict IX (1032-45)

Sylvester III (1045) Benedict IX (1045)

Gregory VI (1045-46) Clement II (1046-47)

Benedict IX (1047-48) Damasus II (1048)

St. Leo IX (1049-54) Victor II (1055-57)

Stephen X (1057-58) Nicholas II (1058-61)

Alexander II (1061-73) St. Gregory VII (1073-85)

Blessed Victor III (1086-87) Blessed Urban II (1088-99)

Paschal II (1099-1118) Gelasius II (1118-19)

Callistus II (1119-24) Honorius II (1124-30)

Innocent II (1130-43) Celestine II (1143-44)

Lucius II (1144-45) Bl. Eugene III (1145-53)

Anastasius IV (1153-54) Adrian IV (1154-59)

Alexander III (1159-81) Lucius III (1181-85)

Urban III (1185-87) Gregory VIII (1187)

Clement III (1187-91) Celestine III (1191-98)

Innocent III (1198-1216) Honorius III (1216-27)

Gregory IX (1227-41) Celestine IV (1241)

Innocent IV (1243-54) Alexander IV (1254-61)

Clement IV (1265-68) Blessed Gregory X (1271-76)

Blessed Innocent V (1276) Adrian V (1276)

John XXI (1276-77) Nicholas III (1277-80)

Martin IV (1281-85) Honorius IV (1285-87)

Nicholas IV (1288-92) St. Celestine V (1294)

Boniface VIII (1294-1303) Bl. Benedict XI (1303-04)

Clement V (1305-14) John XXII (1316-34)

Benedict XII (1334-42) Clement VI (1342-52)

Innocent VI (1352-62) Blessed Urban V (1362-70)

Gregory XI (1370-78) Urban VI (1378-89)

Boniface IX (1389-1404) Innocent VII (1406-06)

Gregory XII (1406-15) Martin V (1417-31)

Eugene IV (1431-47) Nicholas V (1447-55)

Callistus III (1455-58) Pius II (1458-64)

Paul II (1464-71) Sixtus IV (1471-84)

Innocent VIII (1484-92) Alexander VI (1492-1503)

Pius III (1503) Julius II (1503-13)

Leo X (1513-21) Adrian VI (1522-23)

Clement VII (1523-34) Paul III (1534-49)

Julius III (1550-55) Marcellus II (1555)

Paul IV (1555-59) Pius IV (1559-65)

St. Pius V (1566-72) Gregory XIII (1572-85)

Sixtus V (1585-90) Urban VII (1590)

Gregory XIV (1590-91) Innocent IX (1591)

Clement VIII (1592-1605) Leo XI (1605)

Paul V (1605-21) Gregory XV (1621-23)

Urban VIII (1623-44) Innocent X (1644-55)

Alexander VII (1655-67) Clement IX (1667-69)

Clement X (1670-76) Bl. Innocent XI (1676-89)

Alexander VIII (1689-91) Innocent XII (1691-1700)

Clement XI (1700-21) Innocent XIII (1721-24)

Benedict XIII (1724-30) Clement XII (1730-40)

Benedict XIV (1740-58) Clement XIII (1758-69)

Clement XIV (1769-74) Pius VI (1775-99)

Pius VII (1800-23) Leo XII (1823-29)

Pius VIII (1829-30) Gregory XVI (1831-46)

Blessed Pius IX (1846-78) Leo XIII (1878-1903)

St. Pius X (1903-14) Benedict XV (1914-22)

Pius XI (1922-39) Pius XII (1939-58)

Blessed John XXIII (1958-63) Paul VI (1963-78)

John Paul I (1978) John Paul II (1978-2005)

Benedict XVI (2005- 2013) Francis (2013- )


Vicar of Christ, Bishop of Rome, Successor of the Prince of the Apostles, Primate of Italy, Archbishop and Metropolitan of the Roman Province, Sovereign of the State of the Vatican City, Servant of the Servants of God,

the 265th Reigning Supreme Pontiff of the Universal Church.

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